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ADVANCES IN GREENHOUSE AUTOMATION AND CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE: A TRANSITION TO PLANT FACTORIES AND URBAN AGRICULTURE

This study reviewed several aspects of a high-tech CEA system including improvements in the frame and covering materials, environment perception and data sharing, and advanced microclimate control and energy optimization models. This research highlighted urban agriculture and its derivatives, including vertical farming, rooftop greenhouses and plant factories which are the extensions of CEA and have emerged as a response to the growing population, environmental degradation, and urbanization that are threatening food security. Finally, several opportunities and challenges have been identified in implementing the integrated CEA and vertical farming for urban agriculture.